Home > Temples of India
Jammu & Kashmir Temples
- Anantnag Dt.
- Aishmuqam - ?
- Akura (Mattan) - ?
- Anantanag - 2 shiva temples
- Anantnag Janglat Mandi Shivalaya
- Bhaumajo Caves - two (shiva?) temples at the foot of the cliff
- Brarianangan - Umanagari - ?
- Bijbehara - Harischandir Temple of Shiva Vijayeshvara, having 11 lingas called Ekadash Rudr, built during the period of King Ashoka, on the pilgrim route to Martand and Amarnath
- Bumazuv - cave-temple of architectural interest, Two ancient temples which are converted to Muslim ziarats, 1 mile away from Mattan, from Anantnag on the Pahalgam road
- Chatargul - ?
- Chitergund - ?
- Chandi Puiarl (Thana Qazigund) - ?
- Chogam - ?
- Dhanav - (Bogund) - ?
- Dooru - ?
- Dyalgam - ?
- Fatehpura (Qazigund Tehsil)
- Hanand, Chowalgam - 2 ancient temple
- Kother - faces south-west, on the Acchabal-Kashtwar road
- Kother - faces to the west
- Krangsoo - ?
- Kulgam Dhanbogund - ?
- Kuvi Utraso Temple - ?
- Lok Bhawan - Tirth Raj Asthapan - Shiva temple ? - 8 km from Anantnag. (Thana Qazigund )
- Martand - mArttANDeshvar - vijayeshvar (84 pillor temple), 5 miles from the town of Anantnag
- Martandeshwar - Mattan wudar in the East of Anantnag
- Mattan temple - 2 miles from Martand, in the middle of a deep pond
- Moripura - ?
- Nagbal - Shivaji temple - built during the reign of Maharaja Partap Singh
- Nai Basti Shivalay
- Navgam Shangas - ?
- Navgam Achhabal - ?
- Sagam - ?
- Salar - ?
- Silligam - Thana Aishmuqam - ?
- Sarnal Gautamnag
- Sopore - Nandkeshvar Bhairava,
- Sopore - Another Shiv Temple on the bank of the Vitasta, near Rasool, annual festival on Jyestha Amavasya
- Sheer Gunj - Shiva Mandir
- Teelvani - ?
- Thajiwara - Chotta AmarNath Temple, wo kilometer from Bijbehara
- Verinag - 6 temples ?, Pawan Sandhya Theerth, Vamu Mandir, Spring temple, Vetesta Mandir, Buna Gund mandir
- Voomoh - Shiva Temple with seven feet long Shiva Lingam, changes colour each day during the week
- Wanpoh (Gasipora) on Khanabal-Qazibad road - ?
- Badgam Dt.
- Chadura - ?
- Chandpora - ?
- Karihama Mandir ?
- Magam (Thana Vodura) - Shivji mandir
- Nowgam - ?
- Sanghampura - (Thana Biru) - Shiva temple
- Yachhgam - ?
- Varahamula (Baramulla) Dt.
- Bandi - Detha Mandir, The temple is built on a high platform in the middle of the courtyard surrounded by a peristyle. The entrance is through a two- chambered gateway. It is assignable to circa tenth century A.D.
- Bandipore - Shiva Mandir
- Baramulla - Bhairavnath
- Baramulla - Shiva temple, located on River Jehlum.
- Baramulla - Nandkishwar Sumbal Bhirav Nath Mandir
- Baramulla on Kungar Tang Road - ?
- Baramulla Shailaputri temple
- Fatapura Sopore - ?
- Hardchanan - ?
- Jayapura (Andarkot) - f King Jayapida near Wular Lake
- Kanishpura (ASI) - ?
- Karichhama - Tang Marg - ?
- Koti Tirtha - on the bank of Vitasta - mukha lingam
- Kreri - ?
- Kunzer Mandir ?
- Palhalan - ?
- Pattan - Shankargaurisvara, Monolithic Siva temple, Built by Sankaravarman in the ninth century A.D., the temple is dedicated to Shiva. It has a square a sanctum with a portico having a trefoiled niche and a number of carved figures. The peristyle and plinth are buried underground .The entrance faces east.
- Pattan - Sugandesha Temple, Built by Sugandha, queen of Ssankaravarman in the ninth century A.D., the temple has a square sanctum with a portico in front and a peristyle around. It is open on one side and has trefoiled niches with sculptures on other sides.
- Panzulla - ?
- shaNkarapuram (patAn) - in between shrInagar and bArAmulla, 2 Lord shiva (Sankaragaurisvara and Sugandheswara) temples (8 th century ACE)
- Shadipora - Narayan Bagh Shadipora Mandir?
- Sheelputri Asthapan - ?
- Sopore - Bhairavnath
- Sumbal - Nandkishwar BairavNath Mandir
- Vankura - ?
- Doda Dt.
- Bhadrawah Basaknag mandir -?
- Bharat village - ?
- Buichhal Mandir - ?
- Gupt Ganga Temple, Bhaderwah, Doda, Jammu & Kashmir - ssociated with the Pandavas, during `Agyatvas` (living in exile), Pandavas had spent a few days here
- Kiratwar - Shiv Mandir
- Kulharad - ?
- Supernag Temple - ?
- Jammu Dt.
- Jammu - raNabhIreshwar
- Dera Temple; Village-Manwal, Jammu
- Shiv temples on the north bank of Tawi river, NH 1A, Jammu
- Poonch - Budda Amarnath - 25-km Northeast Of Poonch Town
- Kathua Dt.
- Billawar - Ancient Temple (Harihara)
- Basohli - Vishesvara and other cave Temple
- Mahadera - Trilochananath Temple
- Kulgam Dt.
- Areh, Kulgam ?
- Damhal, Honjipora - Shivaji Temple
- Devsar - Devsar Mandir
- Kulgam - Two shiva temples
- Kulgam - Ashmuji Mandir
- Mirhama - ?
- Kupwara Dt.
- Handura Mandir - Bata Gund Mandir ?
- Handwara - Chogal Mandir ?
- Lalpura - ?
- Shiva Mameshwara Temple, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir - 12th century - on the banks of Wular Lake, 11 km from Alsu, near Bandipore, Has A stone-lined tank, about 1 sq. m in diameter
- Sharada Peeth - Shiva temple, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir - in the Neelam valley
- Sharda Teerth, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir, associated with Rishi Kashyap
- Tekpora - ?
- Tragaon - ?
- Watipora - ?
- Panwangam (Pulwama) Dt.
- avantipUr (vantipUr) Avantishwara - Northern bank of river Zeelam in between islamabad and srinagar, avantIshvar, built by avantivarma (855-882 ACE) - This Siva temple was built by king Avantivarman. It is located in the centre of a courtyard surrounded by a colonnaded peristyle. The entrance is in the middle of the western wall and is approached by a flight of steps. The base of the sanctum is cruciform approached by stairs from four sides. There are two subsidiary shrines at the rear corners of the courtyard.
- Kakpora - This temple assignable to tenth – eleventh century A.D. is built in the centre of a courtyard enclosed by peristyle. Only base of the sanctum and a few cells of the peristyle are preserved.
- Khrew - Shiva Temple, ancient monolithic
- Koil (Thana Pulwama) Shiva Temple
- Ladhuv - This temple which is internally circular and externally square stands in the middle of a tank fed by a natural spring. The entrance on the south west sides as an arch surmounted by a pediment. The structure is datable to circa eighth century A. D.
- Brari Maej, Shiva temple
- Quill - ?
- Payer - 950 ACE, t is open on all sides (Sarvatobhadra type). The doorways are surmounted by a trefoil arch enclosed by a pediment. There are beautiful sculptures in relief of three forms of Shiva in the trefoil arches of the doorways. The roof is pyramidal and two- tiered.
- Shopian Shiva Temple
- Shopian Suchcha Nath Mandir
- Trisal (Thana Pulwama)- ?
- Rajouri Dt.
- Banpuri Shiva Kashi Temple, Sunderbani - holds a grand yagya on Baisakhi every year
- Peer Badesar Temple - constructed by King Kanishka, in 142 ACE, on the border between Rajouri and the Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK
- Srinagar Dt.
- Ashtapan of Nandkeshwar
- Village Achan - Shri Jagan Nath
- Village Sumbal - Shri Nandkeshvar
- Village Mattan - Shri Ganganand
- Village Pargachu - Shri Kakvishal
- Village Ladhoo - Shri Jeevan Nath
- Village Sirnoo - Shri Moonglesher
- Village Drussu - Shri Omkar Nath
- Village Murran - Shri Neilkanth
- Maisuma Bhairav
- Jawaharnagar Shiv Temple
- Srinagar Karan Nagar Bhairav Mandir
- Srinagar Near Secratariat Shiv Temple
- Srinagar Chota Bazar Shiv Mandir
- Srinagar Sarafkadal Shiva Mandir
- Srinagar Shitalnath Mandir
- Srinagar Bana Mohalla - Shiva Vishnu Temple, on the Bank of River Jehlum.
- Srinagar - Karfali Mohalla - ?
- Srinagar Hawal - Puran Raja Bhairo
- Narsingh Bagh – Shadipur Temple, Ganderbal, Shrinagar - ?
- Avantishwara Temple, 30 km from Srinagar on Srinagar-Jammu National Highway
- Barbar Shah - Shiv Temple
- Batayar - Shiv Mandir
- Barov Mandir, Srinagar
- Bijbehara - Vijeshwar temple
- Bijbehara - Another Shiva Temple
- Bohri Kadal - Ancient medival period temple
- Bumzuva cave temple - A temple is enshrined in one cave, which has a trefoil arched doorway surmounted by a pediment and side walls. On stylistic consideration it is assignable to circa twelfth century A.D. The main Shiva Temple was built on a high raised platform inside the cave. A Shiv linga installed on the right side of the Cave temple the area of the cave is approximately. 5X10 mts. The flight of steps with railings has been restored.
- Chandpora - Shiva temple
- Chakreshwar Temple, Hari Parbat, Srinagar
- Sri Ranbireshwar - Ishbar Nishat, Srinagar
- Shiva temple - Doompura, Basant Bagh, Srinagar
- Fatehkadal, Srinagar - Near Raghunath temple
- Gandherbal - Shiva Temple
- Hariparbat - Vamdev Mandir
- Rainawari - Shiva -Parvati temple
- Logripora - Ragniya shiv temple
- Jyesteshwara temple (Shankaracharya Temple) - on Gopadari Hill in the south-east of Srinagar, built by king Gopaditya in the sixth century A.C.E.
- Jagan Nath Bhairavji mandir - Achan, Pulwama
- Habba Kaddal - Somyar Mandir ?
- Kotithirth - bairav bagh shiva temple
- Kotithirth - small shiva temple nearby
- Bhairavnath temple of Chattabal, Srinagar
- Magarmal Bagh Mandir - ?
- Mansbal lake - shiva temple
- Naranag - Shiva Temple, Naranag is the modern name of ancient Sodaratirtha which was an important place of pilgrimage from early times. It contains two groups of temples. The first comprises six temples. The principal temple has a square base with two entrances opposite each other in the northeast and southeast sides. It has pyramidal roof and domical ceiling. The two sides which are closed are decorated externally. The second group of temples is enclosed in a parastyle pierced by a two chambered gateway. The largest temple has a square base. There is a rectangular trough of granite to let in a water of holy spring outside.
- Narastan - shiva temple
- Patnitop - Sudh Mahadev - 120-km Northeast Off The Srinagar Road At Kud, Ancient temple
- Paapharan Nag - shiva temple
- Pokhribal Temple - near Almond garden in Srinagar
- Pryag - Shiva temple
- Purshyar Temple, Shiva temple on the bank of River Jhelum, on the ghats of Veyth,Srinagar
- Puranadhisthana (Pandrathen) - three miles to the south of Srinagar - 50 B.C. two temples of Siva, called Bhim Swamina and Vardhamanesa, It is one of the best preserved temples of Shiva of the sarvatobhadra type, located in the middle of a tank. It is relieved by figure sculptures which are particularly remarkable on the ceiling. It has a two tiered pyramidal roof while its four entrances show the usual type of pedimented trefoil design.
- Puranadhisthana (Pandrathen) - three miles to the south of Srinagar - Meru-Vardhan Swami, built sometime between 913 and 921 A.D. by Partha - king of kashmir
- Shivala temple, Chotta Nazar, Srinagar
- Kathlishwar Mandir, Zaindar Mohalla, Srinagar
- srInagar - hill temple, shankar
- Srinagar - Babor Temple - 72-km East Of Jammu-Srinagar Road, Ancient temple
- Shiva Mandir, Shetalnath, Srinagar
- Shiva Mandir, Malapora, Srinagar
- Shivalaya - Ramakrishna mission, Karan Nagar, Srinagar
- Kani Kadal, Srinagar - Gouri Shankar Mandir
- Sumbal - Nandkishor
- Tulamulla - ?
- Barbar Shah, Srinagar
- Karan Nagar / Nursing Garh - Bhairavnath Mandir
- Sathoo bar bar shah - shivji temple
- Shiva temple at zeethyar - Srinagar at the foothills of Zabarwan mountain range
- Takshak Nag - shiva temple
- Thajwara Thirtha
- Vicharnag Shiva temple
Other place of Jammu & Kashmir :
- amarnAth - 80 miles from shrI nagar
- bail gAnv (Pahalgam)
- Bijbehara - Siva Temple
- Balhama Shiva temple
- daktisulaimAL - a hill top temple in kashmIr
- Fatehgarh - Siva Temple, A ruined large temple with a square sanctum. Fragment of a colossal Shiva-linga is placed over a moulded platform in the cell. It may be attributed to circa ninth century A. D.
- Garur - Siva temple
- Jaubror - Avantisvara Temple
- katra - baba dhansAr, 15 kms from katra on the way to salal dam.
- katra - shivkhori, 70 kms from katra.
- Kother - Siva temple
- Manasbal Lake - Siva Temple
- Bhutesa Temple
- Jyesthesa Temple
- Shankaragauriswara Temple
- Sugandesa Temple
- Avantishwara temple
- Miniature Temple, Shopian
- Kaptesvara Temple
- Harihara Temple
- Pahalgam - Mamlesvara Temple
- Pahalgam - Gauri Shankar temple
- Pandrethan - Siva Temple
- Sherpore Kund - Shiv Mandir
- vAngAt (vANiyAt) - 320 miles from srinagar in kashmir, near harmukh mountain, bhUtesh, before 8th cent ACE, renovated by uchchahAlan in 12th cent.
- Bhatpora - Karihama in Tehsil, Magam
- Drabyar temple
- Gouri Shanker Mandir, Kani-Kadal
- Shiva Mandir, Batayar
- Vijeshwar Temple, Bijbehara
- Shiva Temple, Bijbehara
- Bairavnath mandir - Sopore
- Damhal, Hanjipura
- Kulgam - 2 shiva temples
- Kulgam - Shivala Temple
- Kulgam - Shivalik temple
Kashmir Temples Destroyed before 20th cent ACE
(Information: Thanks to koausa.org)
Desecration of Hindu
in Kashmir from the advent of Islam 1339
(The following brief is based on the
recorded findings of Historians including Muslim chroniclers and foreign
Sikandar the iconoclast desecrated and destroyed
this temple which was built by Queen of Partapaditya II who reigned in
Kashmir from 634 to 648 A.D. Zain-Ul-Abdin (1420-70) A.D. used stones and
idols in the construction of Bund from the Naidkhal to Sopore.
SHANKARACHARYA MANDIR (SRINAGAR)
Noor Jehan, Queen of Jahangir, built the grand
Mosque known as Pather Masjid (Srinagar) with the sculptured beautiful
stones which formed steps of the mandir right from River Jhelum to the
top of the hill.
NARPARISTHAN MANDIR (SRINAGAR)
Built by Likhana-Naraindraditya who reigned Kashmir
from 178 to 191 A.D. has been turned into a Muslim ziarat called Narparisthan.
KALI MANDIR (SRINAGAR)
Qutab-Ud-din usurped it (1373-89) A.D. to be
converted into a mosque in memory of Mir Syed Ali of Hamdan of Persia who
had come to the Valley to establish Islam. Hindu King Pravarsena ll. had
dedicated the Kali-Shrine to the Goddess Kali (79-139 A.D.).
MAHASHRI MANDIR (SRINAGAR)
It was turned into a graveyard, Wife of Sikander
was buried in its interior.
SKANDA BHAWAN (SRINAGAR Downtown)
Its sacred springs and massive temple construction
desecrated and spoilt, it was christened as Ziarat of Pir Mohd. Basur.
TRIBHAWANA-SVAMIN (SRINAGAR Downtown)
This temple built by Chadrapida (684 to 693 A.D.)
was laid to ruins and its vast vicinity used as graveyard.
Built in (950-58 A.D.) was desecrated. Its sculptured
stones removed. DIDDA- MATHA (Srinagar downtown) Temple converted into
Tomb of Malik Sahib.
Built (521-63 A.D.) It was destroyed by Sikander.
Material utilized to built a mosque nearby.
Constructed by Queen Magavahana (22 B.C -13 A.D.)
There are other ruins of Hindu temples in its vicinity which have been
converted into Ziarats and burial grounds and nothing is known about their
RANESHVARA (SHALIMAR GARDEN)
Built by King Ramadatiya (414-74 A.D)
On the North Eastern corner of the Dal Lake, Pravarsena
II, the founder of Srinagar had built a Villa for a Hindu saint named Sukarna
Swami. Bernier, who visited Kashmir with Aurangzeb, gives an interesting
account of the garden in his travels and says that the doors and pillars
made of stone were used in the garden during Mughal era had come from some
of the idol temples demolished by Shah Jehan and that it was impossible
to estimate their value.
Built by King Ramadeva (2936-3005 B.C) with large
ornamented and beautifully carved stones erecting it to the height of 50
yards. Regarding this British Researcher Sir Walter Lawrence has remarked
While the old Hindu buildings defy time and weather,
the Musalman shrines and mosques crumbled away. Other foreign travelers
have recorded that Hindu temples were built to endure for all time. Their
solidity of construction and their gigantic size strike one with wonder
that puny man could have built them. They often gazed upon them with amazement
and lamented bigoted Muslim fanatics who laid them to ruins with tremendous
TEMPLE OF BUZMA
It was usurped and converted into the Ziarat
of Baba Bamdin. Another temple close by was turned into the tomb of Rukh
Din, disciple of Muslim Priest Bamdin.
SHRINES AROUND DAL LAKE
The slopes of the mountains overlooking the Dal
lake have adorned many ancient shrines mercilessly destroyed by bigoted
SHARDA UNIVERSITY & ACADEMY OF LEARNING
(VIJAISHORI, now BIJBEHARA)
Sir Walter Lawrence records in his ''Vale of
Kashmir'' that all books of Hindu learning which bigoted Muslims could
lay their hands on were sunk in the Dal lake and Sikander flattered himself
that he had extirpated Hinduism from the Valley. Alberuni an Arab scholar
recording his visit to Kashmir has stated that in all their grandeur the
Hindus of Kashmir never slackened in their ardent desire of doing that
which was good and right. He also records they were men of noble sentiments
and noble bearing. Books of science, astronomy, space travel, medicine
and the like were destroyed - The labor of countless ages and countless
We quote here under from world famous work of
Mr. M. A. Stein:
Rajtarangini - Kalhana (Volume II)
Moti Lal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Delhi, Reprint 1989
HILL OF SARIKA
Eastern slopes of the latter are now occupied
by extensive buildings connected with famous ziarats of Maqaddam Sahib
and Akhun Mullah Shah. It is probable that Mohammadan shrines have taken
here place of Hindu religious buildings, just as at so many old sites of
Close to the foot of the southern extremity of
the hill is a rock which has from ancient times received worship as an
embodiment of Ganesa under the name of BHIMASVAMIN...... In fact, if we
are to believe Jonaraja, the rock image has changed its position yet a
second time. This chronicler relates that BHIMASVAMIN from disgust at the
iconoclasm of Sikander Butshikan had finally turned his back on city.
Page 446, para 95
TEMPLE OF SIVA PRAVARESVAPA
A short distance to the S. E. to the BHIMASVAMIN
rock and outside Akbar's fortress, lies Ziarat of Baha-ud-din Sahib, built
undoubtedly with the materials of an ancient temple. The cemetery which
surrounds it contains also many ancient remains in its tombs and walls.
At the S.W. corner of this cemetery rises a ruined gateway, built of stone
blocks of remarkable size, and still of considerable height. This structure
is traditionally believed by the Srinagar Pandits to have belonged to the
Temple of SIVA PRAVARESVARA which Kalahana mentions as the first Shrine
erected by PRAVARESVARA in his new capital.
...... Blocks majoring up to sixteen feet in length,
with a width and thickness equally imposing, were no convenient materials
for the builders of Muhammadan Ziarats, hammams etc. who have otherwise
done so much to efface the remains of ancient structures in Srinagar. The
position of the ruins is very central and might have well been chosen by
the founder of Pravarapura for prominent shrine in his new city.
POSITION OF RAMASVAMIN TEMPLE
Not far from Baha-ud-din Sahib's Ziarat, to the
S.W. stands Jami Masjid, the greatest Mosque of Srinagar. Around it numerous
ancient remains attest the former exist- ence of Hindu Temples. Proceeding
still further to S.W, in the midst of a thickly built city-quarter, we
reach an ancient shrine which has remained in a comparatively fair state
of preservation probably owing to its conversion into a ziarat. It is now
supposed to mark the resting - place of the saint styled Pir Haji Mohammed.
It consists of an octagonal cellar of which high basement and the side
walls are sill- preserved. The quadrangular court in which it stands is
enclosed by ancient walls and approached by or ornamented gateways. The
position of this shrine has suggested me its possible identity with the
ancient temple of VISNU RANASVAMIN which Kalhana mentions as founded by
Ranaditya.This temple must have enjoyed considerable celebrity up to a
comparatively late period. Mankha refers to it an object of his father's
devotion, and Jonaraja in his comments on the passage speaks of VISNU RANASVAMIN
as one of the chief shrines of Pravarapura. The evidence on which the suggested
identification is based has been fully indicated in note iii.453.
Page 447, para 96
The site of vihara has been traced by me in the
close vicinity of Ziarat Pir Muhammad Basur. Certain ancient remains there
were locally known and worshipped till the
middle of the present century
as a tirth sacred to Skanda. Near the SKANDABHAVANVIHARA there stood once
the temple of Sivaparavaguptesvara referred to by Kalhana as a foundation
of King Paravagupta. Page 448, Para 97
A little higher up, if we can trust local tradition,
stood the ancient temple of VARDHAMANESA mentioned already in King SAMDHIMAT'S
reign. The site so designated by the purohits of the adjoining mohalla
is close to the Malyar ghat. I have referred already in a previous note
to the curious manner in which an ancient linga supposed to be that of
VARDHAMANESA was recovered a few years ago from a neighbouring mosque and
a Mahatmaya composed for the newly established shrine.
Page 450 Para 99
A tradition recorded already by General Cunninghum
identifies this place (Zukur) with ancient JUSKAPURA. Kalhana names the
place as a foundation of Turuska (i.e Kusana ) King Juska who also built
Vihara there. The Muhammadan shrines and tombs of the village contain considerable
remains of the ancient buildings. Page 456, Para 104
On the shore of the Anchar lies the large village
of Amburher. It took its name from a temple of Siva Amaresvara which Suryamati,
Ananta's queen, endowed with Agraharas and a matha.The ancient slabs and
sculptured fragments which I found in 1895 in and around the ziarat of
Farrukhzad Sahib, may possibly have belonged to this temple.
Page 456,457 Para 104
It is held be a manifestation of Ailapattra Nag
who is mentioned also in Nilamata. An earlier designation seems to be MUKAMULAKANAGA
which is given to the locality by Srivara and in the Tirthasamgraha. To
the west of village and near an inlet of Anchar are the ruins of three
ancient temples now converted into ziarats and tombs.
TIRTHA OF SODARA
Close to the mosque of Sodarbal and by the lake
shore are two pools fed by perennial springs. These according to local
tradition, were in old times visited by numerous piligrims. Now all recollection
of this tirtha has been lost among the Brahmins of Srinagar. But a name
of the portion of the village area, Battapor, points to a former settlement
of Battas or Purohits. It is curious too that we find only half a mile
from the village the ziarat of Hazatbal, perhaps the most popular of all
muhammadan shrines in the valley. It is supposed to be built over the remains
of the miracle-working Pir Dastagir Sahib. Is it possible that the presence
of the rather ubiquitous saint at this particular spot had something to
do with the earlier Hindu Tirtha?
Page 457, Para 104
The chief place of Vihi Pargana is now the town
of Pampar, the ancient Padmapura, about 4 miles south west of Khunmoh.
It was founded in the beginning of 9th century by Padma, the powerful uncle
of puppet King Cippata/Jayapida. Padma is said by the chronicle to have
also built a temple of Visnu-Padmasvamin. To this may possibly have belonged
the scanty remains of an ancient temple which have been described by General
Cunningham. Close by is the Ziarat of Mir Muhammad Hamadani with some fine
ancient columns and ornamented slabs which are likely to have been taken
from the temple. Also other Ziarats of the town show similar remains.
Only a mile to the south east of Khruv is the
village of Sar, until recently the seat of flourishing iron-industry, Kalhana
mentions it by the name of Sanara as an Agrahara founded by King Sacinara------.
The Ziarat of Khwaja Khizar which stands here near small springs is built
with the remains of the Hindu Temple. Page 459, Para 105
About two miles south-west of Sar are found the
well preserved ruins of a temple near the village Ladu (not marked on survey
map). They have been described by Bishop Cowie, but I am unable to trace
any old reference to this shrine in the texts I have examined. It is remarkable
for having a circular cellar, the only one known to me in Kashmir. A small
square cellar to the east of this temple has been annexed to a neighbouring
Page 459-60, Para 105
It was once the site of one of the oldest and
most famous shrines of the volley, the temple of Visnu Cakradhara.... The
plateau is still as TSAKDAR UDAR.... The shrine of Cakaradhara is often
mentioned as Tirtha of great sanctity. The temple seems to have been subsequently
restored, and Jonaraja mentions the statue of CAKRADHARA among those chief
divine images which Sikandar Butshikan destroyed.
Page 461-62, Para 107
TEMPLE OF SIVA VIJAYESVARA
The old Linga of Siva Vijayesvara seems to have
been destroyed by Sikander Butshikast.
Page 464, Para 109
DISTRICT OF VAMAPARSVA
It forms the modern Pargana of Khovurpor. An
old site is undoubtedly the large village of Hutmar. Its modern name seems
to identify it with the SAKTAMATA which Ksemendra names as one of the stations
in peregrinations of his heroin Kankali. The chief mosque of the place
is built with the remains of a Hindu temple and preserves in its walls
some sculptured fragments of remarkable beauty.
SHRINE OF BHIMAKESAVA
About a mile below Hutmar and on the bank of
a branch of Lider lies the hamlet of Bumzu which contains an ancient structure
of considerable historical interest. The Ziarat of Baba Bamdin Sahib is
nothing but a well preserved resting place of a Muhammadan saint.
Page 465, Para 110
TEMPLE OF MARTANDA
The ancient remains at the sacred spring itself
are very scanty. All the more imposing are the ruins of the great temple
which King Lalitaditya erected at a short distance of the presiding deity
of the tirtha. The destruction of the sacred image is ascribed to Sikander
Page 166, Para 111
About four miles to the north east of Kother
and on a branch of Arpath river lies the populous village of Sangas, the
ancient Samagasa......... some old carved slabs built into the chief Ziarat
of the place attest its antiquity.
Page 467,468, Para 112
DISTRICT OF KARALA
In the lower portion of the district and on the
left bank of Visoka, we have the ancient Katimuso, the present village
of Kaimuh. The place Is mentloned by Kalhana as Agrahara, founded by Tunjina
I, and contains some old remains built into its chief Ziarat.
Page 471, Para 116
It has received its name from the ancient Parihasapura
which King Lilitaditya had built as his captal. The identity of the names
Parspor and Parihasapura is evident on phonetic grounds, and was well known
to the authors of the Persian abstracts of Rajatarangini. Yet curiously
enough the site of Parihasapura had remained unidentified until I visited
the spot in 1892 and traced the ruins of Lalitaditya's great structures
as described by Kalhana on the Plateau known as Paraspor Udar.
The full destruction of the temples is attributed
by Abu-l-fazal and the Muhammadan chroniclers to Sikandar Butshikast.
Page 477 and 478, Para 121
Varahamula, situated on the right river bank,
has left its name to the present town of Varahmul, usually called Baramulla
by Punjabis and other foreigners. The ancient temple of Varaha which seems
to have been one of the most famous shrines of Kashmir, is repeatedly mentioned
by Kalhana. According to the tradition of the local Purohits it stood near
the site of the present Kotithirtha, at the western extemity of the town
and close to the river bank. Some ancient Lingas and sculptures found at
Kotitirtha may have originally belonged to the temple. The destruction
of its sacred image is noted by Jonaraja in the reign of Sikandar Butshikast.
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