Trnstd. by Rev. Henry. R. Hoisington
Edited by Sri. T.N. Ramachandran
Hoisington was born on 23 August 1801 in the United States of America. As a child he was very precocious. However his health was of an extremely delicate nature. Dr. Armstrong was his Guru and he graduated from Williams College in 1828. He pursued his theological course in the Auburn Theological Seminary. He was ordained in 1831. In 1833 he arrived at Ceylon as a missionary attached to the Batticotta Seminary.
Hoisington was one of the two who were entrusted with the work of founding a mission in Madura. He came to Madurai in 1834 where he stayed for a couple of years.
Hoisington was endowed with exceptional powers of mind and his keen intellect readily grasped the metaphysics as also the philosophy of Saiva Siddhantam. His stay in Madurai should have provided him with the necessary tools for learning Saivism. Owing to ill-health he was compelled to return to America in 1842. But we find him back in Jaffna in 1843. His interest in Saivism extended to its ancient Puranas. He was particularly drawn to Kanta Puranam. He made it part of the curriculum in schools run by missionaries in Ceylon. The tough-minded Saivites of Ceylon raised a hue and cry, and Hoisington did well to ignore their protest. He assiduously pursued his study of Saivism with "the help of some good Tamil scholars among the teachers of the Seminary" as observed by him in his Preface.
Meanwhile in 1842 the American Oriental Society was founded, for the avowed object of promoting oriental scholarship in America. At or about 1850 the Society started a journal known as the Journal of the American Society. The Society is active from its start and its present address is 329, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale Station, New Haven, Conn - 06502.
Encouraged by Edward E. Salisbury, Josiah W. Gibbs, Charles Beck and William D. Whitney who constituted the Committee of Publication for 1853-1854, Hoisington launched upon the laudable work of translating Tattuva-Kattalei, Siva Gnana Potham and Sivapprakaasam. He enriched his translation with explanatory notes. These were published in volume IV of the Journal of the American Oriental Society in 1854. His translation created a stir in the world of thinkers and philosophers who were thrilled to the very cockles of their heart to meet with a system of philosophy and metaphysics, which though hoary, was fresh, dynamic, radiant and transforming.
The elucidation of Saiva Siddhantam by Rev. Henry R Hoisington is amazingly simple and is convincing at once. In the main it is dependable, its minor errors not with standing.
Hoisington was an excellent writer and speaker. He was a multifaceted genius. Even in 1848, he brought out a work enunciating in detail the entire system of Hindu Jyotisha-Sastra. This book entitled The Oriental Astronomer was published in 1848 by the American Mission Press, Jaffna.
Hoisington was a linguist. He was at home in English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Tamil. His capacity for comprehension and communication left even scholars amazed. Owing to ill health he had to quit his missionary service. He lectured on Hinduism for about two years. He suddenly passed away on 16 May 1858.
Dharmapura Adhinam has already brought in book-form Hoisington's translation of Siva Gnana Potham. This book painstakingly edited by the noted scholar on Saiva Siddhantam - Siva Sri N.Murugesa Mudaliar is hailed as a classic by discerning scholars.
We present in the following pages Tattuva-Kattalei with Introductory Note and all, as translated and published by Rev. H. R. Hoisington. It is our misfortune that we are unable to trace the original Tamil work so far.
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Translated from the Tamil by Rev. H. R. Hoisington
The following article is a close translation with explanatory notes, of a treatise entitled Tattuva-Kattalei, the Law of the Tattuvam, or of things according to their Essential Nature. The Subject of which this treatise gives a bare synopsis, is fully exhibited in an original Tamil work, consisting of four hundred and sixteen closely written foolscap pages. This large work is polemical, maintaining the Saiva views in this department of Hinduism. It is denominated Tattuva Pirakasam (தத்துவப் பிரகாசம்), the Elucidation of the Tattuvam. Both these works, which present the same phase of doctrine, are constructed on the principle that man is a miniature universe complete. They present the origin and nature of man, and also of all that constitutes the universe.
The brief treatise here presented, does not follow the order in which the topics are arranged and treated in the larger work referred to. It was probably designed as a manual or guide for the Guru, rather than as a text-book for the disciple. It is too brief, in itself, to give any intelligible view of the system to the uninitiated. Yet as a help to those who would look into the mysteries of Hinduism, it is important, if not indispensable. It stands related to the whole system of their mystic philosophy, somewhat as the Greek grammar does to the whole course of the Greek classics dry to the beginner, but continually gathering interest as one advances in the vast field before him.
The notes which are dispersed throughout the treatise, will, it is hoped, render the whole more intelligible and readable, and help to bring the system more distinctly to view. They are designedly as brief as the nature of the subject seemed to allow. All the explanations are based on the authority of native commentaries, as yet found only in Tamil.
The Tattuva Pirakasam is the only full and complete work on the Tattuvam of which I have any knowledge. Other brief treatises on the Tattuvam are to be found in both Tamil and Sanskrit. Belonging to different Schools of Philosophers, they vary from each other as to the number of the Tattuvam, and in some other respects. The Tattuva-Kattalei gives the highest number of Tattuvam anywhere named, and is more systematic and complete than any other of the smaller treatises which I have seen. It presents the standard system of the orthodox Saivas of Southern India and Ceylon. According to this treatise, there are thirty-six Primary, and sixty Subordinate, Tattuvam. The primary Tattuvam are divided into three general classes, successively developed. From the first class named in the order of this work which is the last of the three in the order of development, are developed the sixty Subordinate Tattuvam.
Our author first barely names the three classes of Primary Tattuvam, and then gives a general specification of the sixty Subordinate.
Next succeeds a statement of the order of development, beginning with the highest, or most remote and subtile existences, and running through the series down to the grossest of the elements, earth. This development of universal being is given as it is manifest in the miniature universe, man.
After this, the Primary Tattuvam are taken in order, and very briefly explained as to their relations to one another, their functions in the human microcosm, etc., etc.
Then follows a view of the states of the soul in its various physiological relations, explaining the phenomena of life, consciousness, activity, and death.
Then are presented the leading states and circumstances of the soul, in its organism, in respect to its moral and religious character, present condition, and ultimate prospects.
This order is preserved in the translation, and the sections are marked accordingly.
The term tattuvam is of Sanskrit origin, and when transferred from the Sanskrit, is spelt tattuva. As this paper is a translation from Tamil, it has seemed well to preserve the Tamil orthography in this and other technical terms.
The meaning of tattuvam is essential nature, or property of any thing, and hence, in common language, power. In this system, it is used to designate any essential part of the human organism; as, element, sense, organ, property, faculty, whether visible or invisible, active or inert. It has been variously rendered in English by category, principle, power, organ, property. But no one of these terms correctly and fully expresses the meaning of the original. It has no equivalent in our language; nor can it have in any language where the force of terms is limited by true philosophy. The ideas wrapped up in tattuvam confound the physical and the metaphysical, the real and the imaginary. Hence it will be necessary, in most cases, to retain the original term.
These remarks will apply mutatis mutandis, to other terms occurring in this paper, and must furnish the apology for their appearance untranslated.
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SECTION - I
THE THIRTY SIX PRIMARY TATTUVAM
These are divided into three classes, denominated Attuma Tattuvam; Vittiya-Tattuvam; Siva Tattuvam.
Attuma Tattuvam (ஆத்தும தத்துவம்), The Proper Tattuvam (or peculiar properties) of souls.
Note : The term attuma is the adjective form of the noun attumam (ஆத்துமம்), meaning soul, or, as a noun of multitude, souls.
These Tattuvam are also called Asutta-Tattuvam (அசுத்த தத்துவம்), the Impure Tattuvam; and Pokkiya Kandam (போக்கிய காண்டம்), the Instruments of pleasure. They are twenty four in number, divided as follows.
1. The five Putham (பூதம்), Elements, viz., piruthuvi (பிருதுவி), earth; appu (அப்பு), water; teyu (தேயு) fire; vayu (வாயு), air; akasam (ஆகாசம்), ether.
2. The five Gnanentiriyam (ஞானேந்திரியம்), Perceptive Organs (or senses). These are sottiram (சோத்திரம்), ears; tokku (தொக்கு), skin; sadchu (சட்சு), eyes; singnguvei (சிங்ஙுவை), tongue; akkiranam ஆக்கிராணம்), nose.
Note : Though these Tattuvam are thus denominated; yet they do not mean the visible ears, skin, etc. Skin, flesh, bones, etc., are distinguished from these organs, and are classed under Subordinate Tattuvam. The terms here mean those subtile, yet material, organisms, or invisible mechanisms, which possess the functions implied.
3. The five Tanmattirei (தன்மாத்திரை), Rudimantal Elements, viz : Sattam (சத்தம்), sound; parisam (பரிசம்) touch; rupam (உரூபம்), form; rasam (இரசம்), taste; kantam (கந்தம்), smell.
Note : These Tattuvam are imperceptible, except to the gods, and to the illuminated sense of the Gnani, or Wise Man. Yet they are substantial, and from them the grosser Elements, named above, are developed. They are the subjects, or recipients, of the archetypes of sound, tangibility, form or colour, flavour, and odor-one of which is supposed to be present in every act of sensation. These archetypes are something more than mere qualities. They are a sort of "corporeal effluvia," or "exuvious images of bodies," as Empedocles and Democritus would call them.
4. The Five Kanmentiriyam (கன்மேந்திரியம்), organs of Action, viz : vakku (வாக்கு), mouth; patham (பாதம்) feet; pani (பாணி), hands; payuru (பாயுரு), excretory organs; upattam (உபத்தம்), genital organs.
Note : These, like the perceptive Tattuvam, are the inner, or imperceptible, organic structures, in which the implied operative powers, or functions, respectively inhere.
5. The four Anakaranam (அந்தக்கரணம்), intellectual Organic Faculties, viz : manam (மனம்), the understanding; putti (புத்தி), the judgement; akangkaram (அகங்காரம்), the individuality; sittam (சித்தம்), the will.
Note : thse are corporeal organs or faculties, and have no life, or power of acting, independent of the soul. Independent of them, the soul has no intellectual life or action. Hence, they are intellectual senses, holding a similar relat on to reflection, which the five senses do to perception. These Tattuvam will be further explained below.
II. Vittiya-Tattuvam (வித்தியாதத்துவம்). These are seven in number, viz; kalam (காலம்), time; niyathi (நியதி), fate; kalei (கலை), continency (self-government); vittei (வித்தை), thought; rakam (இராகம்), desire; purushan (புருஷன்), life; mayei (மாயை), delusion*.
( * The meaning of mayei as given by the translator is erroneous. Mayei is the material cause of the Universe. Ed.)
These are otherwise denominated Asutta-Tattuvam (அசுத்த தத்துவம்), the Impure Tattuvam; and Pokkiya Kandam (போக்கிய காண்டம்), the Instruments of pleasure**.
( ** The word Pleasure will have to be substituted by the word Experience. Ed.)
Note : These seven Tattuvam are essential to man in his state of probation; while the Attuma Tattuvam are essential to his animal and intellectual existence. The Vittiya are the higher order or Tattuvam, and act as prompters and directors to the soul in its animal organism as they lead the soul through evil as well as good actions, and secure to it painful as wellas pleasurable experience. They are sometimes called, like the first class of Tattuvam, which are the instruments in these courses of action and experience, Impure Tattuvam, and Instruments of Pleasure. They are designated vittiya, from vittei, signifying knowledge, examination, etc., because they are essential to the proper thought, or consciousness, of the soul, in its disciplinary state.
III. Siva-Tattuvam (சிவதத்துவம்), the Divine Tattuvam (or the developments of Deity). These, five in number, are otherwise denominated Pirera-kandam (பிரேர காண்டம்), the Operative (or effective) instruments and Sutta-Tattuvam (சுத்ததத்துவம்), the Pure Tattuvam.
These are Sutta Vittei(சுத்தவித்தை); Ichchuram (ஈச்சுரம்); Sathakkiyam (சாதாக்கியம்); Satti (சத்தி); and Sivam (சிவம்).
These complete the thirty-six primary Tattuvam.
Note : The order in which these divine powers are developed, is the reverse of that in which they are here given. Sivam is the Male Energy of Deity thus developed and organized. Sathakkiyam is the highest form, or organism, in which the two Energies are developed. Ichchuram is the organism through which the obscuring agency of Deity is exerted. Sutta-Vittei is the power of destruction and reproduction; and when further developed, appears in the forms, of Ruttiran or Sivan, Vishnu, and Brahma. The relations and functions of these will be further explained below.
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SECTION - II
THE SUBORDINATE TATTUVAM
1. Puranilei-Karuvikal (புறநிலைக் கருவிகள்), the External (or visible) Instruments, developed from the Elements.
From piruthuvi, earth, spring, these five, viz : hair; bone; skine; nerves and tendons; muscle.
From appu, water, the following five arise, viz : watery secretions, such as tears, phlegm, ear-wax, serum, etc., red-blood; semen; brains, marrow, fat, etc., excrescences, such as warts, moles, white flesh, etc.
From teyu, fire are developed the following five Tattuvam, viz ; appetite, sleep, fear, sexual pleasure; gaping; stretching, etc.
From vayu, air, emanate the following five Tattuvam, viz : running, sitting walking, lying, standing.
Note : These form what are supposed to be the connecting organisms, lying between the soul and other Tattuvam, and which are essential to the existence of the animal phenomena named.
From akasam, ether, are produced the following five Tattuvam, viz : those which prompt to lust; to good and evil acts towards others; to giving and withholding; to desire in general; to admiration, surprise etc.
In all, there are twenty-five.
II. Tesa-Vayukal (தெச வாயுகள்), the Ten Vital Airs (or animal spirits), Viz:
Piranan (பிராணன்) that whihc causes respiration, and keeps up all the vital actions.
Apanan (அபானன்) that which separates the excrementitious and urinary matter, and prompts to void them.
Uthanan (உதானன்) that which causes hiccoughs, strangling, etc.
Viyanan (வியானன்) that which absorbs and distributes the chyle.
Samanan (சமானன்) that which secures due proportions in the several parts of the body.
Nakan (நாகன்) that which produces coughing, sneezing etc.
Kurman (கூர்மன்) that which produces bending stretching gaping, etc.
Kirutharan (கிருதரன்) that which opens and shuts the eyes, or winking.
Tevatattan (தேவதத்தன்) that which causes laughing, smiling, etc.
Tananycheyan (தனஞ்செயன்) that which causes swelling in the body before and after death, and which at last splits the head, (skull) and escapes.
Note : These ten are all developed from the Element air. Authors differ somewhat respecting their powers or functions. The specifications above given are the more common, and are taken from other authorities in Tamil. Our author gives merely the terms, leaving it for the Guru to communicate their meaning. These Airs are obviously a device to supply the place of the involuntary nerves.
III. Vasanathikal (வசனாதிகள்), the five Vital Airs (or animal spirits). These are; Vasanam (வசனம்), Speech; kemanam (கெமனம்), loco-motion; tanam (தானம்), giving; vikarpam (விகற்பம்), excretion; anantam (ஆனந்தம்), sexual pleasure.
Note : These are a class of Airs which operate exclusively on the five organs of Action. They seem to be, in their functions, what we should style voluntary nervous powers. They perform the offices of what Locke calls "nervous or animal spirits," conveying to the "seat of sensation" "some motion" which has been produced by "singly imperceptible bodies" that proceed from objects of sense; and, also, convey the commands of the soul to the Organs of Action.
IV. Tesa-Nadi (தெச நாடி), the Ten Tubes (or tubular organs). These are : idei (இடை); pingkalei (பிங்கலை); sulimunei (சுழிமுனை); kantari (காந்தாரி); atti (அத்தி); singnguvei (சிங்ஙுவை); alampurudei (அலம்புருடை); purudan (புருடன்); sangkini (சங்கினி); vayiravan (வயிரவன்).
Note : The Nadi are the channels for the Airs. They ramify into seventy-two thousand branches, and pervade every part of the human microcosm. I give, from other Tamil authors, a brief accoun of the principal Nadi, and of some of their leading branches.
Idei-nadi rises in the left side of the lower pelvis, from whence it passes off in two branches, one running upwards, and the other down the left leg to the great toe.
Pingkalei-nadi rises in the right side of the lower pelvis where it divides into two parts, one running upwards, and the other down the right leg to the great toe.
Sulimunei-nadi rises ab anop and proceeds ad genitalia, where it several times encircles, the mystic Om (ஓம்), the symbol of the productive powers of Deity; thence its main part, called nilam (நீளம்), runs directly to the head. This is the Maka-Meru (மகாமேரு), or the Golden Mountain, in the human microcosm.
The upward branches of idei and pingkalei run diagonally, and meet in genitalibus, where they encircle sulimunei forming an arch over Om. This is Brahma's seat or throne.
These two Nadi proceed thence diagonally to the sides of the pelvis, and return and meet in the region of the navel, where they again, encircle sulimunei, forming an arch or canopy. This is Vishnu's seat.
Proceeding thence diagonally upward, as before, these Nadi meet in the region of the heart, or, rather, as the locality is described, in the stomach, where they encircle sulimunei, forming another atharam (ஆதாரம்), seat. This is the throne of Ruttiran or Sivan.
Then proceeding as before, they meet and encircle sulimunei in the back of the neck. This forms the seat of Mayesuran (மயேசுரன்).
Again, passing on as before, they meet in the forehead between the eyebrows. "In this region of light", they form the throne of the Illuminator, Sathasivan (சதாசிவன்).
From thence they proceed to, and terminate in, the nostrils.
The several circles described above, with sulimunei running through them, form in each case a Lingam (இலிங்கம்), or, which is here substantially the same an Om. These symbols constitute a great item in the mystic doctrines and worship of all sects of Hinuds.
Kandari-nadi rises in the region of the heart, from sulimunei, and terminates in the eyes.
Atti-nadi rises from sulimunei, in the region of the heart, and ramifying in several directions, terminates in the bones.
Singnguvei-nadi branches off from sulimunei, in the region of the heart, and terminates in the tongue.
Alampurudei-nadi springs from sulimunei, in the rigion of the heart, and terminates in the ears.
Puruda-nadi springs, in the region of the heart, from sulimunei, and branching out, terminates in the arms, and in the muscles which raise and move the arms.
Sangkini-nadi rises from sulimunei, in the region of the hear, and making various circuits, terminates in genitalibus et ano.
Vayirava-nadi rises, and after making different circuits, terminates, like the preceding Nadi.
The connection of the Ten Vital Airs with these Nadi, is here very briefly given, from other authorities.
Piranan, which is properly the vitalizing Air, and remains in action white life continues, runs naturally through sulimunei; but when the passage of this Nadi is closed, which is the case in certain states of the systerm, then this Air, running from the nostrils, passes around the skull or brain, and then proceeds downwards, sometimesby idei, and sometimes by pingkalei.
When piranan proceeds by idei, or pingkalei, then apanan courses downwards by vayiravan, and discharges the urine and feces.
Uthanan proceeds by atti to the neck, arrests or checks piranan, and causes hiccoughs, choking, and swelling or stoppage in the windpipe.
Viyanan runs through kantari, causes the mouth to give utterance, and disperses the chyle into seventy thousand blood-vessels.
Samanan flows through sangkini, mingles with the contents of the heart, and gives symmetry to the body.
Nakan flows along alampurudei, and by means of the brain causes sneezing.
Kurman flows along purudan, and seizing the arms and the lips causes stretching and gaping.
Kirutharan runs along singnguvei, seizes the eyelids, and causes winking.
Tevatattan flows along sangkini, courses through the face, lights up the countenance, and causes laughter, etc.
Tanagncheyan courses or stands in the skin, and at death, when the other Airs cease, puffs up and breaks the skin.
V. The four vakku (வாக்கு). These are : sukkumei (சூக்குமை); peisanti (பைசந்தி); mattimei (மத்திமை); veikari (வைகரி).
Note : These constitute the organic bases of intelligent ideas and language, as laid in the human microcosm. They will be explained below.
VI. Mukkunam (முக்குணம்), the three kunam, Moral properties These are : Sattuvikam (சாத்துவிகம்), rasatham (இராசதம்),, tamatham (தாமதம்).
Note : The term kunam (குணம்) means quality, temper, disposition, etc. But in this system it is a thing, a material existence, the source of moral qualities. According to another Tamil author, the Three Kunam are explained as follows.
Sattuvikam (lit. goodness) prompts to gnanam, divine wisdom; to the proper observance of rules and ceremonies to truth; and to love.
Rasatham (lit. passion, or foul disposition) produces pride and selfishness-possesses the propensities to pride and selfishness.
Tamatham (lit. darkness) prompts to stupidity, laziness, and sleep.
Their relations and functions in the human system will be more fully explained hereafter.
VII. The three Akangkaram (அகங்காரம்), viz; teisatham (தைசதம்); veikari (வைகரி); puthathi (பூதாதி).
These complete the ninety-six Tattuvam.
Note : The term akangkaram means pride, or a sense of self-individualism. In the case before us, it is an organism; and, in its three-fold development and relations in the humans system, operates variously, as will be seen in other parts of this Treatise.
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SECTION - III
TOTRAM ODUKKAM (தோற்றம் ஒடுக்கம்)
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOLUTION OF THE TATTUVAM
By the grace of Parama-Sivan's Para-Satti (பரம சிவனுடைய பராசத்தி), Natham (நாதம்), the Male Energy of Deity, is developed from Kudilei (குடிலை) (the primeval mayei, Elemental Matter; from Natham is developed Vintu (விந்து), the Female Energy of Deity; from Vintu is developed Sathakkiyam (சாதாக்கியம்), the highest form of organized Deity (that combines the two Energies); from Sathakkiyam is developed Mayesuram (மயேசுரம்), the obscuring God; and from Mayesuram is developed Sutta-Vittei (சுத்த வித்தை) otherwise called Rudra or Ruttiran (உருத்திரன்), the Destroying God, or the Reproducer.
For the use of these five divine developments (in their co-operation with the human soul), are evolved, from the before-mentioned Vintu, the following Tattuvam,: viz the four Vakku; the fifty-one letters of the Sanskrit; the eighty-one Patham (பதம்), Formulas for religious worship, the seventy millions of Makamantiram (மகாமந்திரம்), Great mystic Formulas, and all the Sastiram (சாஸ்திரம்), Sacred Treatises. Also, for the Vigngnanakalar (விஞ்ஞானகலர்), souls under the influence of two malam, are produced tanu (தநு), external forms; karanam (கரணம்), external organs; puvanam (புவனம்), localities in the body; and pokam (போகம்), means of enjoyment and suffering.
From the same source, also, are developed the three states of beatification, viz : salokam (சாலோகம்), position in the same world or locality with God; samipam (சாமீபம்), position near God; sarupam (சாரூபம்), position in the form of God. These are the respective positions of the soul when it has completed the several stages of religious life, called saritheri (சரிதை), the Puranic or historic stage; kirikei (கிரிகை), the mystic or scientific stage; yokam (யோகம்), the meditative or ascetic stage. Finally, from the same are evolved the five kalei (கலை) portions of the Tattuvam combined.
Note : These five kalei are each a distinct avatharam (அவதாரம்), or organism, of the soul, composed of parts of the ninety-six Tattuvam, combined into a system by a distinct development. They are called nivirti (நிவிர்த்தி); pirathittei (பிரதிட்டை); vittei (வித்தை); santi (சாந்தி); santiyathithei (சாந்தியாதீதை). They will be explained below.
The term malam, meaning impurity, evil, will be of frequent occurrence. There are three malam, viz : matter in its obscuring or entangling power; anavam (ஆணவம்), source of sin; and kanmam (கன்மம்), cause of action, mayei (மாயை), delusion. These will be more fully explained in another place.
It is manifest, from an inspection of the foregoing statements, that, while the author has his eye chiefly on the miniature universe, man, he necessarily includes the universe proper, in his strange enumeration and combination of things. That the two views, are necessarily involved in this system, will be still more manifest from what follows.
Thus far we have the direct results of the co-operation of Parama-Sivam, the Supreme God, with Para-Satti, the Supreme Satti, or consort of God. The organisms hitherto specified are from sutta-mayei, or pure Elemental Matter, which was eternally united with pristine Deity, but which had no connection with soul, or with malam, the evil which affects the soul in its several states of existence.
Next are presented the works, or productions, of the developed or fully organised deities above named, in co-operation with their proper Satti. The organisms next produced are from asutta-mayei, an impure form of Elemental Matter, which was eternally associated with Soul, and in which the two malam, anavam and kanmam, or original impurity, and the consequent experience, such as good and evil acts, pleasure and pain, inhered.
By the Grace (Satti) of the Infinite God (Sathakkiyam) are developed from asutta-mayei the first three of the Vittiya-Tattuvam, viz : kalam, time; niyathi, fate; and kalei, continency. And from kalei two others are evolved, viz: vittei, thought; and rakam, desire.
Note : Thus far we have the work of Sathakkiyam, or Sathasivam, and his Satti. Next are enumerated the productions of Ruttiran, the Sutta-Vittei above named, and his Satti. Pirakiruthi, named below, is the same as the Sanskrit prakrithi. In Tamil, the word has various meanings as foundation, source, cause, nature. In the succeeding productions, it is styled mulapirakiruthi, or the fundamental cause, as the ultimate source to which as the succeeding organisms may be traced.
By means of Grace (Satti) of Ruttiran, mula-pirakiruthi (மூலப்பிரகிருதி) is evolved from the last mentioned kalei. From mula pirakiruthi, the Mukkunam, Three Moral Properties, are developed. The position of the Mukkunam as undeveloped pirakiruthi, is called avviyatham (அவ்வியத்தம்) (Sanskrit, avyakta).
From this avviyattam are evolved sittam, the will and putti, the judgment. From putti is evolved akangkaram, the individuality.
This akangkaram is the Tattuvam which individualize, and leads one to say : "I, myself", etc. It has a three-fold form, viz; teisatha-akangkaram, veikari-akangkaram and puthathi akangkaram.
From teisatha-akangkaram are evolved manam, the understanding, and the Gnanentiriyam, five Perceptive Organs; in which the sattuvika-kunam operates.
From veikari-akangkaram are evolved the five Organs of Action; in which the rasatha-kunam operates.
From puthathi-akangkaram are evolved the five Rudimental Elements, viz: sattam, parisam, rasam, and kantam; in which the tamatha-kunam operates.
From sattam is evolved akasam, ether; from parisam emanates vayu, air; from rupam emanates teyu, fire; from rasam emanates appu, water; from kantam emanates piruthuvi, earth.
ODUKKAM, RESOLUTION OF THE TATTUVAM
At the time of the dissolution of the universe, all these things will be resolved, by successive steps, into their original forms.
Thus end the evolution and resolution of the universe.
Note : According to the doctrine of the Saiva School, at the close of every karpam (கற்பம்), great period, there will be a complete dissolution, and rendering back to their primordial state, of all developed existences, excepting souls. Even deity will then 'sleep' as He did before the creation. But souls, once developed, and delivered from the thraldom of their malam, will ever remain intimately united with Deity, clothed in the "resplendent gnanam".
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SECTION - IV
FUNCTIONS OF THE TATTUVAM
I. Functions of the Attuma-Tattuvam.
1. Of the Elements : piruthuvi, earth, envelopes and strengthens the parts; appu, water, cools and expands; teyu, fire, warms and gives unity (to the whole organism); vayu, air, gives sound and rotundity (to the parts); akasam, ether, gives space.
Note : According to this philosophy, ether is universally diffused. It not only forms space, but is the essential medium through which bodies, separated from one another, may mutually operate.
2. Of the Perceptive Organs : sottiram, ears, perceive sound; tokku, skin, understands touch; sadchu, eyes, perceive form; singnguvei, tongue, discriminates flavour; akkiranam, nose, has the knowledge of odor.
Note : These, as before stated, are not the external organs, which are composed of skin, muscle, etc., ; but those finer portions of the organs of sense, to which these functions more properly belong. They may exist independent of the external body. Hence they are sometimes called the Organs of Intelligence, Puttiyintiriyam.
3. Of the Organs of Action: vakku, mouth, enunciates; patham, feet, produce loco-motion : pani, hands, give and receive; payuru, excretory organs, separate and emit the excret ons; upattam, genital organs, give pleasure.
4. Of the Intellectual Organic Faculties: manam, the understanding, apprehends; putti, the judgement, decides, judges, purposes; akangkaram, the individuality holds as one's own, individualizes, prompts to action; sittam, the will, thinks clearly, wills.
Note : These are mere organs, through which the soul is enabled to exercise the functions named, and without which it has no such powers. They are properly intellectual senses.
II. Functions of the Vittiya Tattuvam.
1. Kalam, time, is distinguished into chel-kalam (செல் காலம்) past time; nikal-kalam (நிகழ் காலம்) present time; ethir-kalam (எதிர் காலம்), future time.
Note : The use of terms here, as elsewhere, is some what peculiar to the system. Each of the times named above, has a further three-fold distinction, having reference to the existence of the soul.
(i) chel-kalam, past time, refers, first, when considered in reference to the general universe, to the primordial state of the soul. But when considered in reference to the soul after its first development, it refers to its existence 'in the loins of its father,' before any given birth.
Secondly, when reference is had to the order of development, chel-kalam refers to the time, or stage, in which the soul passes from the Siva-Tattuvam to the progress through births, chel-kalam refers to the point of time when the soul passes from the father to the mother.
Thirdly, when in the order of the general development, chel-kalam is the time of the soul's passage from the Vittiya-Tattuvam to the Attuma-Tattuvam. In the subordinate case, it is the time of the soul's birth into the world.
(ii) Nikal-kalam, present time, is the period of the soul's continuance in either of the three stages, i.e., either in chel-kalam, in nikal-kalam or in ethir-kalam.
(iii) Ethir-kalam, future time, is the time of the soul's continuance in either of the three states included in chel-kalam as defined in No.(1).
Hence, writers often speak of nine kalam. Again, as all the nine are essentially involved in each of the three grand distinctions, they also make mention of twenty-seven kalam.
2. Niyathi, fate, makes kanmam sure, and secures to the soul all the fruits of one's own doings, and of his anava-malam, primordial depravity.
3. Kalei, continency, gradually lessens and removes anava-malam.
Note : This is the power by which the senses are subdued, and eternal self is brought into subjection.
4. Vittei, thought, wakes up understanding, and leads to wisdom.
5. Rakam, desire or concupiscence lessens the good obtained, and produces desire, for what is not had (or for what is unlawful).
6. Purushan, life, establishes, or supports, the whole system in its operations.
7. Mayei, delusion, concentrates in itself the Three Kunam, viz : sattuvikam, rasatham and ramatham.
Note : This is substantially the mula - pirakiruthi, mentioned under the head of Development of the Tattuvam (Sec. III). It lays the foundation for the operation of the Three Kunam, according as they are developed, in the various classes of organised beings. As an organ in the human microcosm, it is the form, or instrumentality, through which satti performs one part of her office-work in the miniature world, or universe - that part in which she leads the soul on in a course of human action and experience.
III. Functions of the Siva-Tattuvam
1. Sivam, or Natham, is the form of Siva - Gnanam, the Wisdom of Sivan, and is that which leads the soul to Sivan.
2. Satti, or Vintu, is the form of action, the organised medium through which the soul is led into the state of grace. (It forms the medium of divine illumination).
3. Sathakkiyam is the form in which the two Energies of Deity are combined, and in which wisdom and action are perfectly balanced. (This is the source of grace to all souls).
4. Isuram (Ichchuram, called also Mayesuram), is the development in which gnanam is lessened, and Kirikei (கிரிகை), action, predominates. (It is the source of darkness to souls).
This form is in man, the obscuring God. He governs men in all their actions while, they are filling out the requirements of their vithi (விதி), fate. He is practically the god of providence, but governs by the laws of stern necessity.
5. Sutta-Vittei, otherwise called Ruttiran, is the divine form in which kirikei, action, is less fully developed, and in which gnanam predominates. (He is the source of destruction of all organic existences).
Note : Ruttiran is called the Destroyer, because he carries on the process of reproduction in all animals and plants, or is the one who sends souls into successive bodies. This involves the destruction of the old body; hence his appellation of Destroyer. But Transformer, or Reproducer, or Regenerator, would be a more correct appellation.
This god is essentially the Mummurthi (மும்மூர்த்தி), the common Triad, of the Hindus : the three, Brahma, Vishnu, and Sivan, being an expansion of himself, by successive developments. The work of reproduction necessarily involves the function of Brahma the Generator, and vishnu, the Preserver. These developments are, however, considered as actually made, and as existing, in every man.
Hence we have the five operative gods, which are usually named according to the natural order of their operations, beginning with the lowest and last developed : Brahma, the Generator; Vishnu, the Preserver; Sivan or Ruttiran, the Reproducer; Mayesuran, the Obscurer; and Sathasivan, the Illuminator.
Their respective regions, or seats, in the human Microcosm are : the genitalia; the navel; the heart or stomach; the neck and chest; and the forehead between the eye-brows.
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SECTION - V
AVATTEI (அவத்தை), STATES OF THE SOUL
The manner in which the soul is connected with the thirty-six Tattuvam, and how it is nourished and made intelligent in its organism, is now explained.
The Avattei are as follows, viz : five Kilal-Avattei (கீழால் அவத்தை) Descending States; five Melal-Avattei (மேலால் அவத்தை), Ascending States; five Sutta-Avattei (சுத்த அவத்தை), Pure States and three Karana-Avattei (காரண அவத்தை), Causative (or radical in reference to the preceding class of Avattei) States.
The whole number of Avattei is eighteen.
The names of the five Descending (and Ascending) States are : Sakkiram (சாக்கிரம்); soppanam (சொப்பனம்); Sulutti (சுழுத்தி); turiyam (துரியம்); turiyathitham (துரியாதீதம்).
To the Ascending States belong thirty-six Tattuvam; to the Descending belong thirty-five.
I Descending States of the Soul
1. Sakkiram - This is an avatharam, organism, which connects the five Perceptive Organs, the five Rudimental Elements, the five Organs of Action, and the four Intellectual Organic Faculties, of the Attuma Tattuvam; purushan or ulla (உள்ளம்), life one of the Vittiya-Tattuvam; the Ten Vital Airs, and the Five Vital Airs, from the class of Subordinate Tattuvam. This complex avatharam is in the forehead, between the eyebrows. It brings the soul in connection only with the thirty-five Tattuvam here named.
2. Soppanam - This is the soul's avatharam in the neck, and connects twenty-five of the Tattuvam belonging to the previous state, viz: the five Rudimental Elemtns, the four Intellectual Organic Faculties; purushan, life; the Ten Vital Airs; and the Five Vital Airs.
3. Sulutti - This is an avatharam of the soul in the region of the heart, and connects only three Tattuvam, viz; sittam, the will; piranan the first of the Ten Vital Airs: and purushan, life.
4. Turiyam - This is the avatharam of the soul in the region of the navel, and connects only two of the above named Tattuvam, viz; piranan, and purushan.
Note : This is the soul's avatharam in the human lingam, where it is connected with only one Tattuvam, purushan. It is the unconscious state of the soul just before death. The soul is represented as lying down in purusha, the point of contact of the two parts of the lingam, and just ready to take its exit through sulimunei-nadi, which runs directly to the head.
The constitution of the Descending Sates involves the philosphy or death, and explains the successive states of the soul, from that of perfect consciousness, down to its unconscious state at death. This last state is sometimes denominated athitha-kevalam (அதீத கேவலம்), a state of lonelines, in which none of the Tattuvam can reach, or affect, the soul. It is the state of the soul when life has ceased, or before its conception for a new birth.
The author next describes four states of the soul, beginning with this lowest, or unconscious state, and rising to a state of consciousness and activity. There are four states after leaving kevalam. These he groups under the term Kevala-Avattei (கேவல அவத்தை), Unconscious States.
The manner in which the soul is brought from its dormant state in athitha-kevalam, to a conscious and communicative state, is as follows.
The splendid Vintu-Satti, in order that she might produce the four Vakku, as the means through which the soul should be made to experience the proper results of its Kanmam, former deeds, first developed a natham, a form of the Male Energy of Deity. This is the first of the four Vakku, and is called sukkumei.
Note : This is the state of incipient consciousness, when the soul begins to be vivified.
The second Vakku, peisanti, is produced in the region of the navel, for the purpose of enabling the soul to discriminate the fifty-one letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, which letters exist unperceived, in sittam, the will, just as the forms of the five radical colors exist imperceptibly in the peahen's egg.
Note : These elementary letters are here supposed to be real existences, the rudimental forms of thought, which will be fully developed in the next stage, mentioned below. The same philosophy is here involved, as in the case of the five elementary colors, called forms, which are developed by the hatching of a peahen's egg.
The third Vakku, mattimai is developed in the region of the heart, and there establishes systematically all the forms of the fifty-one letters, which are united with piranan (the first of the Ten Vital Airs). It is then, with these forms, born in the back of the neck, as the foundation of sound and sense to the ear, which has been hitherto without its proper functions.
Note : Here we have the foundation of language and the communication of ideas, laid in the structure of the human body.
The fourth Vakku, Veikari, is developed in the forehead, in order that the organs of speech may understand how to speak the proper ideas, when sukkumei, and the other Vakku, which come in connection with piranan, joined with the Vital Air uthanan, are heard in their communications by the ear.
Note : The meaning of this is, that this Vakku gives the power to perceive, and utter intelligibly, the ideas and forms of speech of which the doundations are laid in the preceding Vakku, and which are communicated to the ear. Hence, this is the seat, or avatharam, of the soul, in all states of perfect consciousness and action.
THE PRODUCTION OF THE FOUR VAKKU
Sukkumei is produced by the Tattuvam Sivam as the efficient cause, and his Satti, as the instrumental cause.
Peisanti is produced by the Tattuvam Sathakkiyam and his Satti.
Mattimei is evolved by the Tattuvam Isuran and his Satti.
Veikari is developed by Sutta-Vittei (Rudra)and his Satti.
Note : Thus, by means of the four Vakku, the soul is brought under the influence of its proper organism, and is made ready to be vivified, and to act according to the requirements of its fate, or kanma-malam.
What next follows describes the manner in which the soul is fully reinstated in the possession of the powers of life.
II. Ascending States of the Soul
The way in which the imperfectly conscious soul, in these four vakku, is brought to a state of consciousness and activity, is as follows.
Sivam develops the Tattuvam (or Vinttu): Satti evolves kalam, niyathi, and kalei. Kalei having removed, by little and little, anava-malam, just as fire removes the particles of wood burnt, the soul, in the form of kalei, associates with itself piranan, in turiyam and then becomes an inhabitant of sulutti.
Then Gnana Satti (ஞானாசத்தி) evolves Sutta-Vittei. Sutta Vittei develops, for the soul, arivu (அறிவு), understanding. Ichcha-Satti (இச்சாசத்தி) brings forth the Tattuvam Isuram. Isuram produces the Tattuvam rakam. Then rakam develops, for the soul, ichchei, desire (or the passions).
Note : Gnana-Satti, the goddess of the wisdom, is the ultimate source of understanding or wisdom to the soul. Ichcha-Satti the goddess of desire, is the ultimate source of desire or passion. Kiriya-Satti, mentioned below, is the ultimate source of action to souls.
The soul is thus invested with the proper forms of desire, understanding, and action, which constitute the avatharam that exists in the heart (or the middle region). In this state the soul is denominated purusha-tattuvam (புருஷ தத்துவம்), and also panchakanchukan (பஞ்ச கஞ்சுகன்) the lord (or possessor) of the first five (of the Vittiya-Tattuvam).
In the same way, Kiriya-Satti (கிரியாசத்தி) evolves, in the avatharam of purusha-tattuvam, Sathakkiyam. Sathakkiyam develops pirakiruthi (ullam, a form of pirakiruthi). This pirakiruthi connects with the soul as kunam. Then the soul, in the form of the Great Kunam, stands in union with the Tattuvam, as a preparation for the experience of good and evil.
Conscious state of the soul in Soppanam.
The instrumentality by which the soul becomes intelligent in the avatharam of soppanam, consists of the following five Tattuvam, viz; manam, putti, akangkaram, sittam and ullam. These respectively evolve the symbols a, u, m Vintu, Natham. Thes symbols develop the five mundane gods, viz: Brahma, Vishnu, Ruttiran, Mayesuran, Sathasivan. The soul possessing these Tattuvam, becomes sukkuma teki (சுக்குமதேகி), an intelligent and active individual, in soppanam, in the same way as it experiences good and evil in sakkiram. With these qualifications, it becomes an inhabitant of sakkiram.
Note : The symbols, a, u, etc. constitute the panchakkaram (பஞ்சாக்கரம்), the five lettered mantiram, in its second stage of development.
Intelligent and Active State of the Soul in Sakkiram.
The method is as follows. When the soul, standing in the place of akasam, ether and possessing sottiram, the organ of hearing, apprehends sattam, sound vakku, mouth, will give utterance to the same.
When the soul, standing in the Element vayu, air, and being in possession of tokku, the organ of feeling, distinguishes parisam, touch, the feet will move.
When the soul, in the Element teyu, fire, and in possession of Sadchu, the organ of sight, discriminates rupam, form, the hands will perform their functions of giving and receiving.
When the soul, in the element appu, water and in the possession of singnguvei, the organ of taste, perceives rasam, taste, payuru will perform their office of separating and voiding the excrements.
When in piruthuvi, earth and in the possession of akkiranam, the organ of smell, the soul perceives kantam, smell, upatham will yield delight.
In the avatharam in which these operations are carried on, Anna-Satti (அன்னசத்தி), the abstract Satti, brings forth the Tattuvam called Sivam. This sivam evolves mayei (the last of the Vittiya-Tattuvam). This mayei, Standing in the form of kunam, and by means of the nine kunam, magnifies things (or causes the soul unduly to magnify the things of sense), and to call a lie the truth. By this means, the soul becomes subject to births and deaths.
Thus far (Melal-Avattei, also denominated) Sakala-Avattei (சகல அவத்தை).
III. Pure States of the Soul
Note : The sueecessive States, or stages of progress, of the soul towards its ultimate deliverance from its entangle ments in the body, are called ninmala-avattei (நின்மல அவத்தை), the Avattei in which malam is destroyed. The course of the soul, here, is through the Ascending States.
The elucidation of the ninmala-avattei in the Sutta-Avattei, is as follows.
When one's kanmam has met its award, and anava-malam is satisfied; when one has received the lamp of wisdom from one's Guru; and when one has come to distinguish and understand Sivan, the soul, and pasam, then one's avatharam, organism, in which one will receive grace, is as follows.
1. When the soul comes to a full vision of the Elements, his stula - sariram (ஸ்தூல சரீரம்), gross body, will cease to exist (or will cease to control or influence him). This state is called ninmala- sakkiram (நின்மல சாக்கிரம்).
2. When one gets a vision of the Intiriyam, five perceptive Organs, and five Organs of Action, the Elements will withdraw (or cease to affect the soul). This is ninmala - soppanam (நின்மல சொப்பனம்).
3. When one comes to understand the Antakaranam, Intellectual Organic Faculties, the INtiriyam will cease to exert their influence. This state is called ninmala-sulutti (நின்மல சுழுத்தி).
4. When the Vittiya-Tattuvam are revealed to the soul then the Antakaranam will withdraw their influence. This state is denominated ninmala-turiyam (நின்மல துரியம்).
5. When the Sutta-Tattuvam are clearly understood, then the Vittiya-Tattuvam will cease to operate on the soul. This state is called ninmala-turiyathitham (நின்மல துரியாதீதம்).
Further view of the Soul in these Ninmala Avattei.
Ninmala-sakkiram is the state in which one's Anta-karanam, which had let out the soul through the senses, become Sivakaranam (or divinely illuminated), so that, from having seen the world as eternal, one now humbly approaches and obtains grace (help) of one's Guru.
Note : This is the transcendental development of one's mind, which one grasps at once, or intuitively understands, all things and circumstances as they are.
Ninmala soppanam is the state in which the soul, by hearing and understanding his Guru, comes to see Sivan. He then becomes exalted, draws near, and is made a possessor of Sivan's enjoyment. In this, it is neither too much elated, nor zealoius, nor overwhelmed.
Note : This is a stage in sanctification, when one's spiritual, or illuminated vision begins to govern and regulate one's affections.
Ninmalasulutti is an advanced stage in self-government in which the devotee is enabled to receive honor, or a distinguished name, without the propensity to say; "I have made this acquisition," etc.
Note : Such an one is supposed to have got the victory over his natural pride and vanity, so completely do his spiritual visions engross him.
Ninmala-turiyam is the state in which the soul reaches the sampurana-tisei (சம்பூரண திசை)*, region of plenty, whence happiness flows in upon it.
( * The translator should have meant தசை (state, condition). Ed.)
Ninmala-turiyathitham is the state in which the soul transcends even the four above-named attainments, and leaves them.
Note : The soul is now in Siva-Rupam, and is a sivam, a god, rather than a mere soul, and is in full participation of the joys of Sivan.
All that can be said of the soul in this state of sampurana-tisei, is that Sivan will appear to it, and shine as the sun, with unspeakable and overwhelming splendor.
Thus, one who has obtained the vision of ninmala-sakkiram, will have one's natural propensities and powers of talking, etc., stupefied, and checked, like one bathing under water, and like one who has eaten to repletion.
Thus far the Karana-Avattei (Karana, radical, in reference to the ninmala-avattei), which are also called Suttam (Sutta-Avattei).
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SECTION - VI
TESA - KARIYAM (தெச காரியம்)
Note : The phrase tesa - kariyam means, literally, the ten things. Here, it refers to the ten principal states or positions of the soul in its organism, the human microcosm. These states involve all the relations of the soul to the Tattuvam here brought to view so far as they bear on its moral and religious character, and on its present condition and prospects. These are topics which belong exclusively to the initiated, or such as have taken a regular course in Hindu theology, and who have advanced to the last stage of religious life, called gnana - patham, the way of wisdom.
The Tesa-Kariyam are as follows, viz; Tattuva-Rupam (தத்துவ ரூபம்), the Form (or body) of the Tattuvam; Tattuva Terisanam (தத்துவ தெரிசனம்), the vision of the Tattuvam; Tattuva-Sutti (தத்துவ சுத்தி), the Purity (or Cleansing) of the Tattuvam; Attuma-Rupam (ஆத்தும ரூபம்), the soul's Proper Form; Attuma-Terisanam (ஆத்தும தெரிசனம்), the Vision of the Soul; Attuma Sutti (ஆத்தும சுத்தி), the Purity of the Soul; Siva Rupam (சிவரூபம்), Sivan's Proper Form (or Sivan, as incarnate Deity); Siva-Terisanam (சிவ தெரிசனம்), the vision of Sivan; Siva-Yokam (சிவ யோகம்), the Union with Sivan; Siva-Pokam (சிவபோகம்), the Enjoyment of Sivan.
Note : These states are first very briefly defined; and then, with the exception of the first three, are repeated, and more fully explained.
I. Tattuva - Rupam is the visible form in which the soul perceives the Mukkunam (or is brought fully under their in fluence), and made to understand their existence.
Note : This is the condition of the embodied soul in its first stage of spiritual enlightenment. The Three Kunam are the ultimate source of all quality or character in man, and may be indefinitely developed and expanded. But the more generic and prominent development is three-fold, making nine kunam. According to another author the three are as follows. Sattuvika-kunam, goodness, produces illulmination, and mildness in thought, word and deed. Operating in these directions, it becomes an 'unfailing and perfect light to the soul arousing it, and making it ready to eat the fruit of its own doing.' Rasatha-kunam, passion, produces for the soul the propensity to excessive occupation in thought, word and deed, and asperity in the same. By these means it prepares the soul to receive pleasure and pain, according to its kanmam, or the law of its fate. Tamatha-kunam brings forth arrogance, that egotistic kunam which says: "There is none like me," etc., and wilfulness, or depraved will. By these means, it welcomes all sensual objects, and brings them to the soul.
The first stage in the soul's spiritual progress, is a degree of self knowledge, by which it has a view of these kunam, and its relations to them.
II. Tattuva-Terisanam is the state in which the soul discovers the nature of its existence with the Tattuvam, and the method in which they operate (or how it lives in them).
III. Tattuva-Sutti is the state in which the soul comes to understand that the Tattuvam are distinct from itself, and in which they withdraw their influence (or cease to influence the soul).
IV. Attuma Rupam is the state in which the soul comes to understand that the form called gnanam is the real form (or a firm reality).
Note : The soul has been already illuminated by Sivagnanam, the light, or wisdom, of Sivan, though it knows it not. It now discovers that there is a real existence in which 'It lives, and moves, and has its being," and through the agency of which it has made all its previous discoveries and advances, though it does not yet understand its true relation to this gnanam.
V. Attuma - Terisanam is the state in which the soul comes fully to understand Tattuva - Terisanam, and when it rites superior to the influence of the Tattuvam; but it now considers, that it is by its own understanding that it has thus advanced.
VI. Attuma - Sutti is the state in which the soul understands its own proper powers of mind, and is prepared to say that it is Sivan that bestows favors in both pentam (பெந்தம்), its organic entanglements, and mutti (முத்தி), its liberated state.